By Harukazu Nakamura Phd (auth.), Harukazu Nakamura Phd (eds.)
In ovo electroporation is an epoch-making success within the learn of developmental biology. With this technique, experiments will be conducted in achieve and lack of functionality in wanted tissue at any wanted level in chick embryos. advent of a tetracycline-regulated gene expression approach and a transposon approach has extra prolonged the potential for the tactic, making it attainable to procure long term expression and to show off and on a gene of curiosity. it really is now utilized to mice, aquatic animals, or even to crops for the learn of developmental biology and for different reasons. during this e-book, the applying of electroporation in lots of embryonic tissues and organs is brought, with a few chapters that care for gene move in adults. Sonoporation, one other useful gizmo, utilizing ultrasonic waves rather than electrical currents, for gene move to mesenchymal tissues is usually brought.
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Additional info for Electroporation and Sonoporation in Developmental Biology
These include functional RNAi-knockdown of endogenous gene by short hair-pin type of RNA (shRNA). The shRNA-mediated 3 Applications of Tol2 Transposon-Mediated Gene Transfer for Stable Integration 23 knockdown approaches have been attempted for many developmental genes, and some but not all of these are successful, i. , 2008). Thus, if a shRNA-encoding cassette is manufactured for the use of Tol2-transposition system, a persistent knockdown of gene function could be possible. In addition, by combining with the tet-on inducible expression, conditional knockdown of developmental genes at later stages should be also available.
The dorsal view of the transfected region of the embryo after whole mount in situ hybridization for coactosin (a), on which a photo of GFP fluorescence is overlaid (b). The GFP expression (white dots) represents the site of shRNA expression. Coactosin expression is knocked down on the experimental side in the cells that express shRNA expression (arrow). The center of the embryo is shown by asterisk. Abbreviations: sm, somite; nt, neural tube; cont, control side; exp, experimental side. Rostral is to the top.
2004). Transgenesis and gene trap methods in zebrafish by using the Tol2 transposable element. Methods Cell Biol 77, 201–222. Kawakami, K. (2005). Transposon tools and methods in zebrafish. Dev Dyn 234, 244–254. Kawakami, K. (2007). Tol2: a versatile gene transfer vector in vertebrates. Genome Biol 8 Suppl 1, S7. , Shima, A. (1998). Excision of the tol2 transposable element of the medaka fish, Oryzias latipes, in zebrafish, Danio rerio. Gene 225, 17–22. , Noda, T. (2004). Transposition of the Tol2 element, an Ac-like element from the Japanese medaka fish Oryzias latipes, in mouse embryonic stem cells.