By Wolfgang Schumann
This publication offers an distinctive review on bacterial genetics, bacterial genome tasks and gene expertise and its functions in organic and biomedical learn and medicine.
The writer publications the reader up front in study in the diverse fields of bacterial genetics, dependent generally on effects obtained with Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis.
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Extra info for Dynamics of the Bacterial Chromosome - Structure and Function
B. J. Beveridge 1999, Bacterial S-layers, Trends Microbiol. 7, 253. Capsules Many eubacteria secrete on their surfaces slimy materials which in most cases consist of polysaccharides and, in a few cases, protein. These layers are called capsules and vary in different microorganisms; but they usually contains glycoproteins and a large number of different polysaccharides, including polyalcohols and amino sugars. Capsule layers have several functions: · They play an important role in the attachment of certain pathogenic organisms to their hosts.
67, 593±556; Fig. 2. ) Fig. 5). Infective agents such as some colicins and phages evolved to parasitize TonB-dependent systems to kill target bacteria. The outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria such as E. coli contains three major classes of proteins: lipoproteins, â-barrel proteins and multicomponent surface structures, such as pili and flagella. Liporoteins have lipid covalently attached to the N-terminal cysteine that anchors these molecules in the inner leaflet of the outer membrane. The â-barrel proteins are composed of â-sheets that are wrapped into cylinders (Fig.
In some cases, the filament is composed of several different flagellins. At the tip of the flagellum is a capping protein termed HAP2, forming a pentamer. New flagellin subunits assemble at the end of the filament under the cap protein, forming a plate-like structure with five legs protruding downwards and interacting with the filament. As each subunit is added, the cap rotates along the end of the helical filament, with a complete rotation of the cap occuring for every 55 flagellin subunits added.