By Mark H. Johnson
The 3rd variation of Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience provides a radical updating and enhancement of the vintage textual content that brought the speedily increasing box of developmental cognitive neuroscience. comprises the addition of 2 new chapters that offer extra introductory fabric on new methodologies and the applying of genetic tools in cognitive developmentIncludes numerous key dialogue issues on the finish of every chapterFeatures a better specialize in mid-childhood and formative years, to enrich the former edition?s emphasis on early childhoodBrings the technology toward real-world functions through a better concentrate on fieldworkIncludes a better emphasis on structural and useful mind imaging
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Extra resources for Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience; 3rd Edition
1), and thus insensitive to external input. I will refer to this as the network possessing innate representations. In later chapters we will see that there is little evidence that the human neocortex possesses innate representations. The second alternative possibility is that both the architecture and the detailed pattern and strength of links are malleable as a result of training. In Chapter 4 we will see that only under extremely atypical environmental conditions, or in cases of genetic atypicality, do we see changes in the basic architecture of the primate brain.
However, it is possible that different types of brain damage can result in the same adult end state (phenotype), somewhat like the discrete number of valleys in Waddington’s epigenetic landscape. In contrast to this, brain damage in later life (perinatal and early postnatal) is commonly compensated for by other parts of the brain. Thus, at this later stage a focal brain lesion may have only mild diffuse cognitive consequences, resembling Waddington’s self-organizing adaptation keeping the organism within a certain chreod and resulting in the same general phenotype.
This is a form of optical imaging, meaning that it depends on measuring minute changes in the absorption and scatter or bending of weak light beams as they pass through the skull and brain (see Lloyd-Fox, Blasi, & Elwell, 2010; Meek, 2002). 3 in the color plate section). Like fMRI, changes in blood oxygenation due to brain activity can be detected with this method, but NIRS is less sensitive to motion artifacts and does not require confinement in a scanner. Therefore, NIRS potentially provides an excellent alternative to fMRI for use with infants and toddlers.