By W Ingamells

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Extra resources for Colour for Textiles: A User's Handbook

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In effect the combination of the dye and fibre through a covalent bond is equivalent to forming a coloured derivative of the fibre molecule. The structures of all organic molecules, including dye molecules, are based on carbon atoms linked by covalent bonds. The structure of carbon atoms acts as a scaffolding upon which other groups of atoms may be placed to provide H the molecule with C + 4 H H C particular H proper- ties, which in the H case of a dye may be corresponds to a group of atoms that H H C H produce or modify the colour.

Such bonds are readily broken and re-formed and they are one of the factors involved when substances are dissolved by water. Most dye and fibre molecules possess groups with hydrogen-bonding capability. Consequently hydrogen bonds are often involved in dye–fibre attractions. One of the features of direct dyes that contributes to their attraction for cellulosic fibres is that their molecules are long and flat, and so can align themselves in close contact with the cellulose molecule, making it easy for hydrogen bonds to form.

Other wool fibres range in diameter from 15 to 40␣ µm, depending on the breed of animal and the position on the fleece on which it grew. Merino sheep produce the finest fibres, with a diameter of 17–25 µm. By comparison, horse hair is of the order of 100–200 µm in diameter, cow hair is coarser still at around 200 µm, whilst hairs from 180 to 250 µm in diameter are stiff enough to be referred to as bristles. (Fibres derived from animals other than the sheep are usually referred to as hairs to distinguish them from sheep’s wool; few have proved suitable for specialist textile uses, but more information is available elsewhere [1].

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