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Such problems can be solved using chemicals that react preferentially with the metal ions, effectively preventing them from interfering with the mainstream reaction or process. Such chemicals are aptly known as sequestering agents. Other terms frequently used in the literature include the derivative ‘sequestrants’ and ‘complexing agents’, although complexing does cover a wider field than just metal–ion chelation with which we are concerned here. Sequestering agents work by a mechanism of complex formation, often in the form of chelation.

8). 2). While chelated complexes are less stable at higher temperatures, this effect can be ignored in practice. The factors involved have been discussed in some considerable detail by Engbers and Dierkes [20,23]. 8. A high stability constant indicates a powerful sequestering effect. For example, amongst the aminopolycarboxylates the stability constant for a given metal ion generally increases in the order: NTA < HEDTA < EDTA < DTPA. Metals can also be listed in order of increasing stability constant: Mg2+ < Ca2+ < Mn2+ < Al3+ < Zn2+ < Co3+ < Pb2+ < Cu2+ < Ni3+ < Fe3+.

2 Approach (c) for pH control involves a deliberate shift of pH during the processing cycle, in a consistent direction rather than randomly. Systems of this type are particularly useful for non-migrating anionic dyes on wool or nylon and have long been known in this connection. More recently, similar systems have been adopted for reactive dyes on cellulosic fibres. The simplest and most widely used of these systems consist of the salts of strong acids with weak bases or of strong bases with weak acids, examples being ammonium sulphate and sodium acetate respectively.

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