By Virgilio Tosi

This vintage historical past of clinical movie used to be released in Italian in 1984, and is receiving its first English booklet in a revised and up-to-date version. Tosi demanding situations conventional histories of the cinema by means of arguing that late-nineteenth century series photographers Eadweard Muybridge and Etienne-Jules Marey weren't precursors of the leisure cinema yet of an important historical past of medical cinematography. Tosi describes the clinical impulses at the back of Muybridge, Marey, different chronophotographers reminiscent of Jules Janssen, Albert Londe, and Georges Demeny, and demonstrates the interesting ways that surgeons, astronomers, ethnologists and biologists used movie within the earliest years of cinema.

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Additional info for Cinema Before Cinema: The Origins of Scientific Cinematography

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One scene from DER SCHUSS IM TONFILMATELIER (Alfred Zei sler) has been recons tructed h ere in a model and shows the sound engineer at work . And although in 1929 the ratio of sound fi lms co silent fi lms was only 8 co 1 7 5 , just three years later no s i lent fi l m s were being made at a l l . Sound or n o t , t h e decisive subject of fi l m i n the Wei m a r Republic w a s the birth of a new epoch and the p l a c e of irs man i festation: the c ity. Alongside Fritz Lang 's evocations of crime, fi lms such as ASPHALT ( 1929, Joe May ) , AUTOBUS NR.

F i l m s s uch a s D E H K N A B E I N II L A U ( 1 9 1 9 ) b y Fr i e d r i c h Wilhelm Murnau, D E I! FU HST V O N PA P P E N H E I M ( 1 9 2 7 ) by R i chard E i chberg, LI E II E S KOM M A N DO 0 9 3 1 ) by Geza von Bolvary and of course, V I KTOH U N D V I KT O H I A 0 9 3 0 ) by Reinhold Schli n zel present metamorphoses, the d i s i n tegra­ tion of gender roles , the confusion caused by man as woman and woman as man. r- 11111/e, adapted from a picture from an l R t h centu ry p a i n t i n g b y the En g l i s h portra i t pai n ter W i l l i a m Gainsboro u g h .

Harlan's versi o n , on r h e o r h e r hand , w a s a counrer p ro j e c t aimed ar defamation .

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