By Kensal E. van Holde (auth.)

Contemporary perspectives at the constitution and serve as of chromatin are provided and the background of the advance of those principles in addition to the character of the nucleic acid and protein elements of chromatin are reviewed. The constitution of chromatin is studied at numerous degrees, and its modes of transcription and replication are analyzed. Chromatin presents researchers with a serious assessment of present wisdom. It combines a lot details that hasn't ever sooner than been assembled, and evaluates and interrelates it in a severe manner. This has now not been performed earlier than in order that readers usually are not in basic terms supplied with an outline, yet with huge references to the literature (there are approximately 2000 references in all).

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3-4. Rotational angles in the nucleic acid backbone. The conformation shown corresponds to zero values for all of the backbone angles. Positive rotation is as indicated by the arrows. (From Biophysical Chemistry, Part I by Cantor & Schimmel. H. Freeman and Company. ) 38 3. The Structures of DNA GROll Fig. 3-5. Angular parameters of twist (t), tilt (8,), and roll (8 R ) for a 2-strand poly- nucleotide helix. From Fratini et al. (1982), Journal of Biological Chemistry. they allow a clearer visualization of the structure.

Calculations (Levitt, 1978) indicate A to be relatively inflexible. It is observed in fibers at low relative humidity and in certain dehydrating conditions in solution. B-DNA: The B helix (Fig. 3-7) is much narrower (~19 A), with relatively open but shallow grooves. A major and minor groove can be distinguished; the former, in particular, allows easy access to the bases. The bases are nearly perpendicular to the helix axis. The molecule is relatively easily bent (Levitt, 1978). It is found in fibers at high humidity and, with some structural modification, in solutions of low to moderate ionic strength (see DNA Molecules in Solution.

1980) Reference aDefined as angle between normal to median plane of base pairs and helix axis. bThis conformation has only been observed with the DNA-RNA hybrid poly(dl)poly(C). It is included here to show the conformational range of A forms. This corresponds to the structure first proposed by Crick and Watson (1954). CThe conformation is still a matter of dispute. See text. dThe repeating unit is a dinucleotide. Half-values are only averages. (A + B) family Z E B' C D B family B unnamed b A family A' A Designation Conformational description Table 3-1.

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