By Bernhard Moser (Editor), Gordon L. Letts (Editor), Kuldeep Neote (Editor)

Chemokines play a big function in recruiting inflammatory cells into tissues based on an infection and irritation. in addition they play a major position in coordinating the stream of T-cells, B-cells and dentritic cells, essential to generate an immune reaction (response to damage, allergens, antigens, invading microorganisms). They selectively allure leukocytes to inflammatory foci, inducing either mobilephone migration and activation. they're keen on a number of ailments, like atherosclerosis, lung and epidermis irritation, a number of sclerosis, or HIV.Volume 1 of this two-volume set discusses the immunobiology of chemokines. it truly is divided into components: a) mobile objectives in innate and adaptive immunity, and b) effector mobilephone traffic-unrelated services. including quantity 2, which discusses the pathophysiology of chemokines, either volumes supply a finished evaluate of chemokine biology.  

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Extra info for Chemokine Biology - Basic Research and Clinical Application: Vol. 1: Immunobiology of Chemokines (Progress in Inflammation Research)

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Agace and Bernhard Homey tractive proteins direct lymphocytes into subepidermal or intraepidermal locations. In humans, the cutaneous lymphocyte associated antigen (CLA) characterises a subset of skin-homing memory T cells. 80–90% of memory T cells in inflammatory skin lesions express CLA. In contrast, only 10–15% of the pool of circulating T cells are CLA positive. CLA+ T lymphocytes never exceed 5% of lymphocytes within noncutaneous inflamed sites [60–62]. These observations suggest that an active and specific recruiting process focused on CLA+ memory T cells is present in inflammatory skin lesions.

This concept is consistent with in vivo studies suggesting that B cells ‘solicit their own help’ from the T cell com- 23 Charles R. Mackay and Bernhard Moser partment. Moreover, recent studies in our laboratory directly demonstrate that B cells can indeed influence the phenotype in TFH cells during co-culture [31]. Of interest, tonsillar as well as in vitro generated TFH cells strongly express ICOS, a recently identified co-stimulatory molecule with critical functions in T helper and B cell responses [31, 32].

Tissue-selectivity of memory T cells Tissue-specific migration by T cells was first observed in the 1970s in sheep and then in mice. A hallmark finding was the discovery that antigen-experienced (memory) T cells but not naïve T cells displayed homing preferences for distinct peripheral tissues [67]. The rationale is that T cells recognising cutaneous-associated pathogens should migrate preferentially to the skin where they are likely to re-encounter their antigen, whereas T cells with selectivity for gastrointestinal pathogens would contribute to mucosal rather than cutaneous defence.

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