By Edward Tipping

Humic ingredients are highly-abundant natural compounds shaped in soils and sediments by way of the decay of lifeless crops, microbes and animals. This e-book makes a speciality of the $64000 binding houses of those compounds which keep watch over the chemical reactivity and bioavailability of hydrogen and steel ions within the typical surroundings. themes coated comprise the physico-chemical houses of humic topic and interactions of protons and steel cations with susceptible acids and macromolecules. Experimental laboratory equipment also are mentioned, including mathematical modelling. eventually the writer appears to be like at how the result of this examine can be utilized to interpret environmental phenomena in soils, waters and sediments. This finished account of cation binding by means of humic topic is a important source for complicated undergraduate and graduate scholars, environmental scientists, ecologists and geochemists.

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Therefore, the subject of this book can be considered to be a particular, but very important, part of environmental chemical speciation. 6 Calculation of equilibrium concentrations Under equilibrium conditions, the concentrations of the chemical species in solution are related to each other via equilibrium constants, mass balances and charge balances. Algebraic manipulation of the relations allows us to calculate the concentrations of individual species, and will be used frequently in the following chapters.

For a typical fulvic acid (M : 1600, : 1), the value is c. 5000 m g\. The 1 m g\ value of U  Chiou et al. 4 Chemical and physical properties 23 severe drying takes place. Effective surface area may be used in computing the accumulation of counterions around humic molecules, and is therefore highly relevant to the binding of cations (Chapter 9). 6 Optical properties Humic materials absorb light in the ultraviolet and visible ranges (MacCarthy & Rice, 1985; Bloom & Leenheer, 1989; Stevenson, 1994).

5 mg dm\ at depth. Estuaries and coastal waters may have higher concentrations, due to the influence of local terrestrial sources. 1). , 1997) suggests that it may have a relatively short turnover time in the oceans. 4 Contents of humic substances in aquatic sediments Organic matter is present in suspended sediments in lakes, rivers, estuaries and coastal seawaters, originating for the most part from eroded soils. The humic matter present in suspension is therefore largely terrestrial in origin.

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