By Michael Zimmermann (Editor)

This quantity experiences the facts that, at specific moments of their heritage and in definite points in their doctrines, the traditions of Buddhism, like different spiritual traditions, have actively or passively promoted - and should proceed to advertise - violent modes of habit or structural violence. The articles during this quantity conceal a extensive spectrum of the Buddhist global in time period of areas and sessions. They take care of facets of violence beginning in India earlier than the typical period and varying to the aid of eastern militarism by means of Buddhist leaders some distance into the 20 th century.

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31 [Padmaka]). I have not yet examined this topic in any greater detail, but it seems to be clear that there are more interesting cases of suicide committed under the influence of such a belief in Buddhist narrative literature. gika or Padmaka-are hardly justifiable from the standpoint of Buddhist dogmatics. See, for example, the story of ~a<;ldanta as cited by Jarnpa L. Panglung, Die ErZiihlstoffe des Mfilasarv6stivada-Vinaya (Tokyo: The Reiyukai Library, 1981),44. 65 Avs 1,331-5 (No. 58 [Mahi~a]).

68 If, however, these altruistic self-sacrifices are interpreted in terms of religious dogmatics, they serve the purpose of accumulating immeasurable merit, which is necessary for attaining the new soteriological goal of Buddhahood. Anyway, there have been voices in Indian Mahayana Buddhism that rather warned against imitating these deeds. Santideva (eighth century), for instance, repeatedly sets limiting conditions for the practice of selfsacrifice. 69 Moreover, some of Santideva's statements may imply 68 See Reiko Ohnuma, "The Gift of the Body and the Gift of dharma," History of Religions 37-4 (1998): 323-59.

And ed. Jeffrey Hopkins (Ithaca, NY: Snow Lion Publications, 1988), 114. 90 Dalai Lama XIV, Ancient Wisdom, Modern World: Ethics for the New Millenium (London: Abacus, 2000), 159-60. 91 Dalai Lama XIV, Dalai Lama at Harvard, 114. 54 Views on Suicide in Buddhism: Some Remarks teaching and to the people of Vietnam-a different situation presents itself. 92 However, radical opposition to suicide is found among present-day Buddhists. The Malaysia-based Theravada monk K. ,,93 The view held by Daisaku Ikeda, the president of Soka Gakkai International, seems to be similarly strict.

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