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1998, Bonventre and Weinberg 2003). An important biomarker for early detection of AKI is the urinary antigen known as kidney injury molecule-1 or KIM-1(Ichimura et al. 1998) and this is generally carried out with the ELISA technique discussed earlier (Vaidya and Bonventre 2006, Vaidya et al. 2006, Lequin 2005). The biomarker can also be detected with particle-based flow cytometric assay, but the cycle time is several hours (Vignali 2000). Electrical measurement approaches based on carbon nanotubes (Chen et al.

22 Biosensors for Health, Environment and Biosecurity pH=7(10-20%). The data in shows the sensor is sensitive to the concentration of the polar liquid and therefore could be used to differentiate between liquids into which a small amount of leakage of another substance has occurred. The conductance of the rods was higher under UV illumination but the percentage change in conductance is similar with and without illumination. 1 pH over the entire pH range, showing the remarkable sensitivity to relatively small changes in concentration of the liquid.

16. Real-time test from a used botulinum sensor which was washed with PBS in pH 5 to refresh the sensor. Fig. 17. Photograph of a packaged sensor placed in a Petri dish for long term storage. Figure 18 shows the current changes of the sensors tested after different storage times at a fixed toxin concentration of 10 ng/ml against the first drain current measurement of the sensor. After 3, 6 and 9 months of storage, the current change drops 2%, 12% and 28%, respectively. Within 3 months of storage, this sensor showed almost the same sensitivity as when it was fresh.

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