By Charles B. Metz

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This crypticity may involve specific interactions of the glycolipids, which, like phospholipids, are mobile in the plane of the membrane, although their mobility may be restricted by specific interactions with proteins. m m m 2. Membrane Proteins The mode of association with the membrane is of critical importance to many of the membrane receptors, enzymes, and transport proteins involved in cell surface recognition and transduction processes. Membrane-bound proteins can be divided into two general categories, integral and peripheral, as defined operationally by Singer and Nicolson (1972).

Since phosphorylation apparently occurs at the cytoplasmic surface of the plasma membrane and EGF binding at the outer surface, the results suggest two 2. CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS 37 separate domains connected by a transmembrane segment. The 150,000-dalton polypeptide is apparently a proteolytic product of the 170,000-dalton polypep­ tide. , 1983). It is interesting that phosphorylation occurs on tyrosine residues (Ushiro and Cohen, 1980), since the transforming gene of sarcoma virus also specifies a tyrosine-specific kinase (Gilmer and Erikson, 1981).

Receptor Availability D. Receptor Localization and Mobility E. Ligand Binding F. Receptor Modification IV. Transduction Mechanisms A. Direct Transfer of Ligand B . Transfer of a Second Messenger C. Synthesis of Intracellular Second Messenger D. Membrane Modifications E. Psuedo-Receptors and Pseudo-Activation Processes V. Summary and Perspectives References 23 24 24 28 31 31 31 33 35 35 36 37 37 39 40 43 47 49 49 I. Introduction Fertilization is a complex process involving the plasma membranes and extracellular components of the sperm and egg cells in a series of reactions resulting in activation of numerous cellular processes preceding cell division and further development (Metz and Monroy, 1967, 1969).

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