By E. L. Wolf

Graphene is gifted and analyzed in its place for silicon. the first concentration is on sun mobilephone and CMOS equipment applied sciences, with cognizance to the fabrication equipment, together with extensions wanted, in every one case. really good functions for graphene in the present silicon expertise are mentioned and located to be promising.

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For example, doping the graphene layer to increase its conductivity was not attempted. 3 Cells Utilizing Dye Absorbers Dye molecules are incorporated into wide-bandgap semiconductor photovoltaic cells to extend the absorption into the red portion of the solar spectrum. Dyesensitized solar cells using graphene as a transparent electrode have been reported by Wang et al. (2008a) and by Eda et al. (2008). 42 3 Solar Cells and Electrodes As background on dye-sensitized cells, the combination of TiO2, tetragonal anatase, with a wide bandgap, and dye has been used as absorber in a class of inexpensive solar cells, reviewed by Graetzel (2001).

In contrast (on the right) the basic chemical exfoliation route oxidizes the plane surfaces as well as the edges (a suggested structure for GO was shown in Fig. 1), and cannot be reversed to pure graphite by direct annealing. As mentioned earlier, when explosive exfoliation is applied to GO, reducing it to graphene, defects remain in the planes. According to Schniepp et al. (2006), to obtain single layers of GO the acid processing of graphite flakes had to last 96 h. Presumably in most cases the acid processing is of shorter duration and commonly leaves multilayers of graphite, and these multilayers are preserved in the explosive heating process.

Right Organic solar cell comprises Electron donor molecule that absorbs light, creating a hole in the HOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital), that transfers to the cathode. The photo-electron transfers to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital LUMO of the electron acceptor, and thence to the anode. Graphene can be used for anode and/or cathode in such a device, and variations on the lightabsorbing portion of the cell include dye sensitization and insertion of quantum dot absorbers. (Reprinted figure with permission from Bosshard, Fig.

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