By Charlotte Sleigh

Ants are legion: at the moment there are 11,006 species of ant identified; they stay all over the global other than the polar icecaps; and the mixed weight of the ant inhabitants has been envisioned to make up part the mass of all bugs alive today.

When we come across them outside, ants fascinate us; found in our kitchen cabinets, they elicit horror and disgust. Charlotte Sleigh's Ant elucidates the cultural purposes in the back of our assorted reactions to those remarkable bugs, and considers the range of responses that people have expressed at diverse occasions and elsewhere to their complicated, miniature societies. Ants have figured as fable miniature armies, as types of excellent habit, as infiltrating communists and as creatures at the borderline among the geographical regions of the natural and the desktop: in 1977 British Telecom employed ant specialists to aid resolve issues of their tremendous details network.

This is the 1st ebook to ascertain ants in those and lots of different such guises, and in so doing opens up broader concerns in regards to the historical past of technology and humans' relatives with the wildlife. it will likely be of curiosity to an individual who likes common heritage or cultural reports, or who has ever rushed out and acquired a can of Raid™.

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Eyes are often large in nocturnal species, upwardly directed in mesopelagic fishes, and small or sometimes absent in fishes from dark habitats including the deep sea and cave environments. Fishes have an inner ear with one (hagfishes), two (lampreys), or three (all other fishes) semicircular canals that function in maintaining balance and orientation. The main organs of hearing are the paired otolith organs, each of which consists of a sensory epithelium with an overlying calcium carbonate otolith (bony fishes) or otoconia (cartilaginous fishes).

Gill et al. (2003) explored the phylogeny of lampreys based on morphological features and, more recently, Renaud (2011) reviewed their systematics and biology. , 2003; Hardisty and Potter, 1971; Potter, 1980; Renaud, 1997, 2011. PETROMYZONTID CHARACTERISTICS: 1) body eel-like, naked 2 ) no paired fins, one or two dorsal fins 3 ) lateral line absent 4 ) seven pairs of external pore-like gill openings 5 ) oral barbels absent 6 ) oral disk and tongue bearing rows of teeth 7 ) single nostril located between eyes, anterior to pineal eye 8 ) cloaca located under anterior half of second dorsal fin or posterior lobe of single dorsal fin ILLUSTRATED SPECIMEN: Petromyzon marinus, SIO 74–​134, 124 mm TL Petromyzontiformes 17 This page intentionally left blank GNATHOSTOMATA Jawed Vertebrates The Gnathostomata is an extraordinarily successful lineage of over 60,000 species characterized by upper and lower jaws that are derived from modified gill arches.

ALOPIID CHARACTERISTICS : 1) upper lobe of caudal fin long and whip-like, equaling length of body 2 ) mouth subterminal, relatively small 3 ) second dorsal fin and anal fin small, pectoral fins large 4 ) caudal peduncle with a precaudal pit 5 ) gill slits small, fourth and fifth above pectoral-fin base ILLUSTRATED SPECIMEN : Alopias vulpinus, SIO 64–​804, 1,448 mm TL LAMNIFORMES : LAMNIDAE— ​Mackerel Sharks LAMNID CHARACTERISTICS : 1) second dorsal fin much smaller than first dorsal fin 2 ) caudal fin nearly symmetrical (approaching lunate) 3 ) caudal peduncle strongly depressed with a lateral keel and precaudal pit 4 ) mouth large, extending past level of eyes 5 ) gill openings large 6 ) teeth large 7 ) gill rakers absent ILLUSTRATED SPECIMEN : A) Isurus oxyrinchus, SIO 55–​85, 875 mm TL (dorsal view) B) head of Isurus oxyrinchus, SIO 55–​85 (lateral view) (account continued) Lamniformes 29 DIVERSITY: 3 genera, 5 species REPRESENTATIVE GENERA : Carcharodon, Isurus, Lamna DISTRIBUTION : Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific oceans HABITAT: Marine; tropical to temperate; neritic to epipelagic REMARKS : Mackerel sharks are strong-swimming, large-bodied predators that prey mainly on fishes, birds, marine mammals, and cephalopods.

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