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12. Spandex fiber. 24 TEXTILE MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES formance fibers include both inorganic (as discussed in the next section) and organic fibers. The aramid fiber is composed of a “long-chain synthetic polyamide in which at least 85% of the amide linkages are attached directly to two aromatic rings” (FTC, 1958). 13. The first and best-known meta-aramid fiber is Nomex®. It has a high decomposition temperature, high ignition temperature, is almost non-flammable and is therefore widely used in firefighter’s uniforms.

It can be seen that, at any cross section, the amphiphiles have self-assembled in such a way that their hydrophobic tails pack in the center of the structure, while their hydrophilic heads appear on the surface and expose themselves to the aqueous environment. , 2001). 3. Self-assembled nanofibers. the products. More importantly, it is the only approach capable of producing filaments from a large variety of natural and synthetic polymers. For this reason, electrospun nanofibers will be the focus of the rest of this chapter.

4. Compound Fabrics and 3D Textile Structures Compound fabrics are multi-layered structures containing at least one layer of fabric. The other component layers may comprise yarns, fibers, films and/or foams. , adhesives) means. A good example of compound fabrics is the coated fabric, in which a base fabric is covered on one or both surfaces, with a layer (or layers) of substantially continuous polymeric coating materials. 1. A Summary of Nonwoven Fabrics. Bonding Method Properties Application Mechanical bonding by needle punching Coarse, low cost Filter media, apparel interlinings, road underlay, and auto trunk liners Spun-laced nonwovens Entangled by high pressure Soft drape, low water jet strength, dimensional stability Draperies and bedspreads, tablecloths, and apparel Wet-laid nonwovens Paper-making techniques followed by adhesive bonding Paper-like Wipes, towels, surgical gowns, and diaper cover stocks Dry-laid nonwovens Deposition fiber layers from an air stream/carding, followed by adhesive bonding Soft hand and excellent drape Diaper cover stocks, wipes and sanitary napkins Melt-blown nonwovens Microfibers extruded, en- Uniformity, lower tangled by air stream, and to moderate bonded at cross-over points strength before solidification Surgical mask, drape and gown, and sanitary products Needlepunched nonwovens Spun-bonded Filament extruded, laid High tensile and Filtration, geotextiles, nonwovens down, bonded at cross-over tear strength and protective apparel points before solidification natural or synthetic rubber, PVC (polyvinyl chloride), or PU (polyurethanes) (Horrocks and Anand, 2000).

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